The Future of Renewable Hydrogen in the European Union: Market and Geopolitical Implications

Authors: Alejandro Nuñez-Jimenez and Nicola De Blasio

March 2022


This report focuses on the market and geopolitical implications of renewable hydrogen adoption at scale in the European Union (EU) and presents long-term strategies based on three reference scenarios. Each scenario focuses on one key strategic variable: energy independence, cost (optimization), or energy security.

Our analysis shows that only by working together can the EU become a global leader in clean hydrogen innovation and simultaneously contribute to the EU’s climate and energy security goals, a more robust economy, and a more integrated union.

What would it require to become hydrogen independent? Where should production be located for cost-competitive supplies? What is the enabling infrastructure that needs to be developed and deployed at scale? How could supply risks be mitigated? Only a thorough analysis of future scenarios can provide policymakers and investors with answers to these key questions, as well as a deep understanding of the associated market and geopolitical implications.

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For Academic Citation: Nuñez-Jimenez, A., and De Blasio, N., (2022),The Future of Renewable Hydrogen in the European Union: Market and Geopolitical Implications," Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, February, 2022.


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